On average, 5–6 lakh people die every year due to cardiac arrest in India alone. Around the world, 17.9 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2016. 

 

Over 75% of cardiovascular diseases occur in low- and middle-class families, and it is important to recognize the symptoms, get diagnosed, and battle the disease. Those who are at risk of cardiovascular disease demonstrate the symptoms of raised blood pressure, glucose, and lipids, as well as overweight and obesity. 

 

If you have CVD or experience any symptoms, book an appointment with your healthcare professionals at the earliest. 

 

In this blog, let’s cover cardiac rehabilitation, a complex intervention that seeks to improve the well-being of patients with heart diseases. 

 

Understanding cardiac rehabilitation

Understanding cardiac rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation is a complex intervention that is also multi-component, including exercise training, physical activity, psychological support, health education, and cardiovascular risk management. 

 

Cardiac rehabilitation is personalized to a person’s needs to ensure good heart health and well-being. It is a secondary prevention method and supports improvement in cardiovascular prognosis. 

 

Core components of CR include: 

 

  1. Diabetes management 
  2. Nutrition counseling 
  3. Weight management 
  4. Blood pressure management
  5. Lipid management 
  6. Exercise training 
  7. Psychological management
  8. Tobacco cessation
  9. Physical activity counseling
  10. Patient assessment 

 

Initially recommended for low-risk patients in the 1960s, with evidence-based benefits, it is now recommended for a range of cardiovascular diseases, including 

 

  1. Acute coronary syndrome
  2. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) 
  3. Coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)) 

 

Cardiac rehabilitation requires the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including cardiologists, general practitioners, physicians with special interests, nurse specialists, physiotherapists, dietitians, and psychologists. 

 

Components of Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation is a multi-component prevention and treatment plan containing multiple components, as said above. Let’s explore three primary components. 

Education and counseling

During the nutritional counseling, estimates of total calorific intakes and dietary content of saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, and nutrients are taken. Furthermore, a patient’s eating habits, including frequency, and alcohol consumption are assessed. Then a nutrition plan is made considering their body, including hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and kidney diseases. Thus, it is possible to modify the lifestyle of a patient concerning food to achieve a healthy lifestyle. Patients and family members are also taught the basic principles of dietary content, such as calories, fat, cholesterol, and nutrients. 

 

Physical activity and exercise training

Interventions are provided to advise, support, and counsel about physical activity, including providing educational materials. Patients are encouraged to engage in 30–60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical workouts at least five times a week. To avoid injury, low-impact aerobics is recommended, and exercises are made to meet the personal needs of the patient. As a result, patients increased their participation in domestic, occupational, and recreational activities and showed improvements in psychological well-being, stress reduction, and interest in self-care. 

 

Blood Pressure Management

 

Seated resting blood pressure is measured in both arms as the initial step. To rule out orthostatic hypotension, seated, lying, and standing blood pressures are also assessed. Any use of non-prescription drugs and current compliance are assessed. Lifestyle modification, including regular physical activity, weight management, sodium restriction, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation, is advised. Furthermore, blood pressure is monitored, and drug therapy is provided. As an ultimate goal, maintaining blood pressure levels at optimal levels is desired and strived for. 

 

Benefits of Cardiac Rehabilitation

The benefits of cardiac rehabilitation have been researched and studied, and evidence supports the claim of its effectiveness. 

 

For patients with atrial fibrillation, regular and moderate exercise have shown positive effects. CR may decrease the resting ventricular response rate in patients, and therefore, it improves the symptoms. Hence Cardiac rehabilitation proves to be a safe option for atrial fibrillation patients. 

 

With improvements in obesity management, smoking cessation, diabetes, and arterial hypertension, patients show good results. 

 

Stress and anxiety are two of the primary risk factors for the development of cardiac disease. Psychological interventions provide positive outcomes for cardiac health, including increased resilience and improvements in depression and anxiety. 

 

Patients become more informed about their heart condition, understanding the importance of medication adherence, symptom monitoring, and regular follow-up appointments.

 

Conclusion

 

Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive program designed to improve the health and well-being of individuals with heart conditions. The conclusion of cardiac rehabilitation marks a significant milestone in a patient's journey toward recovery and long-term heart health.

 

By adhering to these principles, individuals can significantly improve their quality of life, reduce the risk of future cardiac events, and enjoy a healthier, more active life. If you suffer from any cardiac diseases, make sure to visit a cardiac rehabilitation hospital to explore your treatment options. 

 

Oxymed is the best cardiac rehabilitation hospital in Chennai, with an expert team of doctors striving to give a healthy life to cardiac patients.

 

Book an appointment or visit our hospital directly